Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele
- (1860–1952)A Sicilian professor of law, Orlando was a member of several prefascist cabinets, rising to the post of minister of the interior during World War I. In 1917, he became prime minister himself when the Caporetto disaster brought about Paolo Boselli’s resignation. Abetter risk calculator than his predecessor, he ordered Italian forces to counterattack in late October. By the end of the month, Italian forces with British reinforcements inflicted a major defeat on the Austrian army at Vittorio Veneto and, on 5 November (nearly a week before the armistice in France), the guns were silenced on the Austrian front. Orlando was called the “President of Victory” and became one of the “Big Four,” together with Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and David Lloyd George, charged with making the postwar settlement. Italy and Orlando cut something of a bad figure in the Paris negotiations. Italy’s failure to obtain the full territorial gains promised to it by the 1915 Treaty of Londonled to the Italian delegation’s storming out of the French capital in April 1919 and retiring to Rome. Orlando seemingly assumed that the Allies would offer terms to persuade him to return. Instead, Orlando and Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino eventually returned to Paris, barely in time for the German signature on the Treaty of Versailles.Italy did in fact obtain the Brenner frontier with Austria and Trieste. It was hardly the “mutilated peace” that Italian nationalists condemned. Orlando’s resentments were nourished by the question of Fiume (Rijeka), which Italy coveted, and the Dalmatian coast. The subsequent Treaty of Lausanne with Turkey (July 1923) confirmed Italian sovereignty over the Dodecanese Islands, which had been exercised de factosince 1912. Nevertheless, the perception that the settlement had been mishandled and Italy denied its just deserts led to Orlando being turned out by Parliament in a humiliatingly lopsided vote, 262–78. His successor, Francesco Saverio Nitti, had the good sense to abort a naval expedition to annex Soviet Georgia that Orlando had devised. Orlando’s relationship with Fascismwas initially ambiguous. Like many Italian liberals, Orlando feared the Fascists less than he feared the socialist menace and the influence of the Vatican. Nevertheless, by 1925 he had realized the futility of his hopes. He broke with Benito Mussolini and resigned from Parliament and from all political activity. When the regime required university professors to pledge allegiance to Mussolini in 1931, only 11 in the entire system refused and resigned their posts. One of them was a by now elderly Orlando. In 1944, the government of Ivanoe Bonomi named Orlando president of the Chamber of Deputies. In 1948, he became a life senator, a position he held until his death.
Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. Mark F. Gilbert & K. Robert Nilsson. 2007.
Look at other dictionaries:
Orlando,Vittorio Emanuele — Or·lan·do (ôr lănʹdō, länʹ ), Vittorio Emanuele. 1860 1952. Italian politician who served as prime minister of Italy (1917 1919) and was the Italian delegate at the Paris Peace Conference (1919 1920). * * * … Universalium
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele — born May 19, 1860, Palermo, Italy died Dec. 1, 1952, Rome Italian politician and prime minister (1917–19). He was elected to Italy s Chamber of Deputies in 1897 and served in cabinet positions from 1903. As prime minister, he led Italy s… … Universalium
Orlando, Vittorio Emanuele — (19 may. 1860, Palermo, Italia–1 dic. 1952, Roma). Político y primer ministro italiano (1917–19). Fue elegido a la Cámara de Diputados en 1897 y ocupó cargos ministeriales a partir de 1903. Como primer ministro, encabezó la delegación italiana en … Enciclopedia Universal
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — De derecha a izquierda :Wilson ,Clemenceau ,Orlando y Lloyd George en las negociaciones del Tratado de Versalles … Wikipedia Español
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — Orlando (2. von links) bei den Verhandlungen in Versailles mit David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau und Woodrow Wilson (von links) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (* 19. Mai 1860 in Palermo; † 1. Dezember 1952 in Rom) war italie … Deutsch Wikipedia
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Orlando. Vittorio Emanuele Orlando … Wikipédia en Français
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — (Palermo, 1860 1952). Primer ministro italiano desde 1917 hasta 1919. Nacido en Palermo, Sicilia, estudió y posteriormente dio clases de leyes. Durante su carrera escribió más de 100 artículos sobre temas legales y jurídicos. De 1903 a 1905… … Enciclopedia Universal
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando — Infobox Prime Minister name = Vittorio Emanuele Orlando order = 35th Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Italy monarch = Victor Emanuel III term start = 29 October 1917 term end = 23 June 1919 predecessor = Paolo Boselli successor = Francesco Nitti… … Wikipedia
Vittorio Orlando — Vittorio Emanuele Orlando Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, né à Palerme le 19 mai 1860, mort à Rome le 1er décembre 1952, Président du Conseil italien en 1917. Biographie Cette section est vide, pas assez détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la … Wikipédia en Français
Vittorio Orlando — Orlando (2. von links) bei den Verhandlungen in Versailles mit David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau und Woodrow Wilson (von links) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (* 19. Mai 1860 in Palermo; † 1. Dezember … Deutsch Wikipedia